ACI Journal Articles


What do the Trump Administration's Changes to PPD-20 Mean for Offensive Cyber Operations?

Document Type


USMA Research Unit Affiliation

Army Cyber Institute

Publication Date



The Wall Street Journal recently reported that the Donald J. Trump administration removed some of the restrictions governing the approval process for offensive cyberattacks conducted against U.S. adversaries under Presidential Policy Directive 20 (PPD-20). With the elevation of U.S. Cyber Command to a unified combatant command in May 2018—on par with the Pentagon’s other combatant commands—the logic behind the reported revisions was that the commander of Cyber Command should have authority to take action comparable to that of other combatant command commanders.

Record links to items hosted by external providers may require fee for full-text.