ACI Journal Articles

Document Type


USMA Research Unit Affiliation

Army Cyber Institute

Publication Date



In the last three decades, the great powers have become increasingly dependent on satellite communication (SATCOM), very high frequency (VHF), and ultrahigh frequency providing high bandwidth line-of-sight communications. These military communication channels lack resilience because an electronic warfare (EW) campaign can affect both VHF and SATCOM simultaneously. The 1940s preferred spectrum, high frequency, with its different propagation patterns, offers an opportunity for military communication resiliency in the 21st century. The concept of retrograding could give an operational advantage and create the ability to sustain communication in EW saturated environment.


Link to open access PDF

Peer Reviewed




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.