ACI Journal Articles
Runtime Monitoring of Deep Neural Networks Using Top-Down Context Models Inspired by Predictive Processing and Dual Process Theory
USMA Research Unit Affiliation
Army Cyber Institute
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved near-human level accuracy on many datasets across different domains. But they are known to produce incorrect predictions with high confidence on inputs far from the training distribution. This challenge of lack of calibration of DNNs has limited the adoption of deep learning models in high-assurance systems such as autonomous driving, air traffic management, cyber security, and medical diagnosis. The problem of detecting when an input is outside the training distribution of a machine learning model, and hence, its prediction on this input cannot be trusted, has received significant attention recently. Several techniques based on statistical, geometric, topological, or relational signatures have been developed to detect the out-of-distribution (OOD) or novel inputs. In this paper, we present a runtime monitor based on predictive processing and dual process theory. We posit that the bottom-up deep neural networks can be monitored using top-down context models comprising two layers. The first layer is a feature density model that learns the joint distribution of the original DNN’s inputs, outputs, and the model’s explanation for its decisions. The second layer is a graph Markov neural network that captures an even broader context. We demonstrate the efficacy of our monitoring architecture in recognizing out-of-distribution and out-of-context inputs on the image classification and object detection tasks.
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