The Adventures of ScriptKitty: Teaching middle school students cyber awareness with comics on the Raspberry Pi
Ovidiu-Gabriel Baciu-Ureche, Carlie Sleeman, Karlee Scott, William C. Moody, and Suzanne Matthews
Cyber security and on-line safety practices are not commonly taught in schools. However, there is an increasing need for education in these topics as children are joining the Internet community at a much earlier age than previous generations. It is crucial that young people understand the risks they may face on-line and how to mitigate them, ideally as soon as they begin using the Internet unsupervised. The Adventures of ScriptKitty (AOSK) introduces students to basic cyber security concepts using the Raspberry Pi, a single board computer that retails for $35.00. We created AOSK to help facilitate a culture of good cyber security practices and raise interest in STEM. The material is presented in the form of comics paired with instructional sections, including sections of more detailed technical information for readers who wish to learn more about key concepts. We piloted a portion of AOSK to a group of local middle school students. Our time with the students was limited, so we administered a short quiz, then discussed the Raspberry Pi. Next, students completed the packet sniffing exercise from Chapter 2, with the authors available to answer questions and help troubleshoot. Students were asked to re-take the quiz afterward. Our preliminary results show that students achieved a greater understanding of the material, with improved scores of 14%. A custom Pi image preloaded with Kali Linux and all needed software is included with the material. All the materials are published and available for free through GitBook at: https://suzannejmatthews.gitbooks.io/aosk/content
The United States Army is a massive organization with an incredible number of diverse networks. These networks range from unclassified and classified business networks to industrial controls system (ICS) networks in critical infrastructure. As the team lead for one of the first cyber protection teams to attempt to tackle ICS security for the DoD I came across significant issues regarding tools, personnel (team composition, talent, retention, etc.), as well as typical organizational inertia. My team was able to overcome many of these challenges, but there are significant obstacles and opportunities for the larger community to tackle. This talk will elaborate on some of the defensive techniques used in ICS networks and how they differ from traditional IT networks, focusing on some of the challenges unique to ICS networks and military operations to secure them. Finally, a few of the United States Military Academy’s educational efforts in this field will be highlighted.
Gary Helton, Kenneth L. Cameron, Rebecca A. Zifchock, Erin Miller, Donald Goss, Jinsup Song, and Michael Neary
PURPOSE: Prospectively investigate the relationship between running shoe characteristics and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. METHODS: The study included 1025 of 1308 incoming United States Military Academy (USMA) cadets. Shoe length and stiffness were recorded to calculate shoe torsional stiffness while shoe heel height was also recorded. Demographic data and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data were also recorded. Lower extremity injuries sustained over nine weeks during cadet basic training were documented using the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA) and the Cadet Illness and Injury Tracking System (CIITS). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated with time to incident of lower extremity injury as the primary outcome by level of the independent predictor variables. Risk factors and known or potential covariates were carried forward into multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Models. RESULTS: Approximately 18.1% of participants incurred a lower extremity injury. Cadets wearing shoes with moderate lateral torsional stiffness were 49% less likely to incur any type of lower extremity injury and 52% less likely to incur a lower extremity injury due to overuse than cadets wearing shoes with minimal lateral torsional stiffness. Risk of injury was similar among cadets wearing shoes with minimal and extreme lateral torsional stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Shoes with mild to moderate lateral torsional stiffness may be appropriate in reducing risk of lower extremity injury in cadets. Shoes with minimal lateral torsional stiffness should be discouraged in this population.
Andrew Plucker and William Corson
Many first year calculus students struggle to see the value in learning single variable calculus. They often focus their efforts on learning the rules of differentiation and integration, losing sight of the broader picture for how calculus is leveraged to solve problems. While rudimentary calculus problems are necessary for the sake of understanding basic rules and concepts, larger and more complex problems are critical to opening the doors for students to gain a practical understanding of the applications. Through a series of Problem Solving Labs and written reports, the single variable calculus program at West Point not only focuses on learning calculus, but also how the core concepts can be used to conduct quantitative analysis that can be communicated to decision makers. Throughout the semester-long course, single variable calculus students complete 4 to 5 different Problem Solving Labs where they leverage technological tools such as excel and mathematica to develop mathematical models to formulate overall recommendations. Each lab report prompt is designed to present an ambiguous problem that requires critical assumptions to enable mathematical modeling.
Effects of a Loaded Ruck March of Isometric Muscle Strength Measured with a Novel HHD Fixation System
Jessica Schindler, Jonathan Kaplan, Clifford Hancock, Erika Hussey, Rebecca A. Zifchock, and John Ramsay
PURPOSE: Understanding the effect that field exercises have on soldier muscular strength is an area of interest for the US Army. Reliably quantifying muscle strength in this context has been limited by availability of portable assessment equipment. The widely used hand-held dynamometer (HHD) presents a challenge when assessing strong muscle groups of healthy soldiers accurately. We devised a portable, field-ready HHD fixation solution to assist researchers in the evaluation of lower body and core isometric maximal muscle contractions. Reliability of the fixation system (patent pending) was assessed prior to implementation at a large- scale data collection during a military field exercise. The purpose of the current investigation was to identify strength changes in select muscle groups prior to and immediately following a loaded road march.
METHODS: 39 soldiers (36M, 3F) performed 4 maximal isometric contraction types, including lumbar extension, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and knee extension. 3 trials of each contraction type were recorded during a pre-mission baseline, and 2 trials were recorded immediately following a 6-mi road march executed with an average load of 50% body weight. Measurements were recorded using the system developed, which provided repeatable subject stabilization, muscle group isolation, and HHD fixation.
The maximum force recorded from each muscle group during a session was used for analysis. A paired sample t-test was conducted to compare pre and post road march strength measures.
RESULTS: No significant change in lumbar extension strength was identified between the pre and post conditions. Significant decreases in strength performance were observed in the hip flexion (8.3%; p=.003), knee extension (7.8%; p=.032), and lumbar flexion (9.9%; p=.009) measurements between the pre and post conditions.
CONCLUSION: While lumbar extension strength did not change following the road march, the decreases identified for hip flexion, knee extension, and lumbar flexion followed the hypothesized trend. This study provides novel insight into the effects of field activities on soldier muscle strength that were not quantifiable prior to the portable HDD fixation system, and presents a range of new opportunities to understand the impact of military exercises on strength.
Andres Alejos, Matthew Ball, Connor Eckert, Michael Ma, Hayden Ward, Peter Hanlon, and Suzanne Matthews
Single board computers (SBCs) are a class of devices where the entirety of the computer is printed on a single circuit board. The Raspberry Pi is perhaps the most popular SBC on the market today. The Raspberry Pi version 3 (1.2 Ghz A53 CPU, 2 GB of RAM), and the Raspberry Pi Zero W (1.0 Ghz ARM11 CPU, 512 MB RAM), cost $35.00 and $10.00 respectively, and both include integrated wireless and Bluetooth. Unlike microcontrollers, SBCs are fully functioning computers with more memory and processing power than the typical sensor. Their powerful System-on-a-Chip (SoC) processors make SBCs good candidates for at-node data summarization tasks in a wireless sensor network . Reducing data transfer in a wireless sensor network is critical for energy efficiency and improved latency . In this poster, we explore the viability of a wireless sensor network composed of Raspberry Pis for video and audio summarization tasks. Our contributions include a i.) novel sensor and gateway node design and ii.) a user interface implemented as an Android App.
The United States Army is a microcosm of the country and has many, if not all of the same functions and challenges. These functions and challenges extend to cybersecurity and its roll in defending infrastructure. As the lead for one of the first cyber protection teams to attempt to tackle infrastructure security for the DoD I came across significant issues in regards to tools, personnel (team composition, talent, retention, etc.), as well as typical organizational inertia. My team was able to overcome many of these challenges, but there are significant obstacles and opportunities for the larger community to tackle. The lessons and issues discussed in this talk are relevant to any large organization with a significant physical and logical footprint.
Integrating historical and real-time anomaly detection to create a more resilient smart grid architecture: poster
Spencer Drakontaidis, Michael Stanchi, Gabriel Glazer, Antoine Davis, Madison Stark, Caleb Clay, Jason Hussey, Nicholas Barry, Aaron St. Leger, and Suzanne Matthews
Ensuring the security of the power grid is critical for national interests and necessitates new ways to detect power anomalies and respond to potential failures. In this poster, we describe our efforts to develop and optimize analysis methodologies for a 1000 : 1 scale emulated smart grid at the United States Military Academy . In contrast to previous work [3, 4], we explore historical analysis using Apache Spark  and integrate a Raspberry Pi into our testbed for real-time anomaly detection. We also implement a software controlled physical event and fault generator to induce and measure faults. Figure 1 gives an overview of our system.
Joseph Drennan, Matthew Vest, Gabriela Barrera, Tyler Weaver, Logan Leahy, and Rebecca A. Zifchock
Effects of Torso-Borne Load Redistribution on Comfort and Gait Mechanics.
Nikolay Shopov, Mingu Jeong, Evin Rude, Brennan Neseralla, Scott Hutchison, Alexander Mentis, and Suzanne Matthews
Facial recognition is a rapidly developing application of machine learning. Face identification is specifically being adopted across security systems such as airports, perimeter security, and law-enforcement. In this poster, we describe a facial identification approach that can be deployed at airports. Our contributions include i.) facial identification software built on top of Google's TensorFlow  framework; ii.) a data collection scheme that can be implemented at airports nationally; and iii.) a user interface for collecting data.
Ruth Talbott, Rebecca A. Zifchock, Roderick Wilson, and William Blackmon
Examination of the Linearity and Eversion/Inversion Symmetry of Torsional Stiffness in Footwear.
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