The Relationship Among Chronotype, Hardiness, Affect, and Talent and Their Effects on Performance in a Military Context

Contributing USMA Research Unit(s)

Behavioral Sciences and Leadership

Publication Date

Spring 3-2-2022

Publication Title

Psychological Reports

Document Type



Individual preference for morning or evening activities (chronotype), affect, hardiness, and talent are associated with a variety of performance outcomes. This longitudinal study was designed to investigate the degree to which these variables are associated with academic, physical, and military performance. Self-reported measures of chronotype, affect, and hardiness were collected from 1149 cadets from the Class of 2016 upon entry to the United States Military Academy. Talent, a composite of academic, leadership, and physical fitness scores were drawn from cadet records. Academic, military, and physical performance measures were collected at graduation 4 years later. The results indicated that a morning orientation was associated with better physical and military performance. Higher talent scores, as well as lower levels of negative affect, were associated with better performance across all three performance measures. Hardiness was only associated with military performance. The findings suggest that a morning orientation and less negative affect may result in better performance overall within a challenging and structured military environment. Future studies of chronotype shifts may provide further insight into associated performance benefits.

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