Reference Percentiles for Bioelectrical Phase Angle in Athletes.

Contributing USMA Research Unit(s)

Center for Data Analysis and Statistics, Mathematical Sciences

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Biology (Basel)

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The present study aimed to develop reference values for bioelectrical phase angle in male and female athletes from different sports. Overall, 2224 subjects participated in this study [1658 males (age 26.2 ± 8.9 y) and 566 females (age 26.9 ± 6.6 y)]. Participants were categorized by their sport discipline and sorted into three different sport modalities: endurance, velocity/power, and team sports. Phase angle was directly measured using a foot-to-hand bioimpedance technology at a 50 kHz frequency during the in-season period. Reference percentiles (5th, 15th, 50th, 85th, and 95th) were calculated and stratified by sex, sport discipline and modality using an empirical Bayesian analysis. This method allows for the sharing of information between different groups, creating reference percentiles, even for sports disciplines with few observations. Phase angle differed (men:

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